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XRF - X-ray Fluorescence

The instrument emitts X-rays that ionizes the material that you measure and identify and quantify metals.
XRF instruments have many different application areas

X-Series

X-Series has an exceptional speed that minimizes test time and maximizes productivity. It is small and well balanced and has a large, clear, lightweight touch display.

The operating system is based on Google Android, with app-powered smart solutions, just like the latest generation of smartphones. Series X is equipped with camera, WiFi, GPS and Bluetooth.

Read more about X-Series

SciAps Serie X XRF-instrument


Joakim Gustafsson
Sales - Environmental
applications
+4631 336 90 07
joakim@scantecnordic.se


Daniel Gustafsson
Sales - PMI, Scrap metal
Industial applications
+4631 336 90 04
daniel.gustafsson@scantecnordic.se

Theory

There are two different types of X-ray flourescens today. One is called Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and the other is called WDL (Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray). Handheld XRFs are of the type Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX).

The principle of an XRF is that power is passed through an X-ray tube where ionized radiation is created and then directed to a material.
In the material, the ionized radiation hits the electrons of the atoms, and the electrons are shot out of the electron shells. Because nature always strives for balance an atom always begins to fill its atomic shell from inside and out, an electron from an outer shell will move closer to the nuclear nucleus to the place where an electron has been extinguished from the atom. When this happens, the atom emits a very specific energy, this energy the XRF instrument can detect in the detector. This allows the instrument to draw a curve based on the energies that hit the detector and also how many times. This is what gives the user a spectrum that can either be read manually or the instrument can calculate which atoms (elements) it is reading and also what concentration in relation to each other.

Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation is a collective term of radiation that has the ability to precipitate electrons from the atoms it collides with, which turns the atoms into ions.

Ionizing radiation can be either electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma radiation) or particle radiation (energy-electrons, protons, etc.) that have an energy on some electron volumes. The radiation comes from an X-ray tube. This x-ray tube may have different properties based on which material the beam is filtered through. The most common materials are: Silver, Gold, Rhodium, Tantalum but other materials that give other properties could be Copper or Cobalt. To get some different properties depending on what you want to measure, you can have different filters that you filter the x-ray through.

Read more about radiation here

Radiation protection

When working with X-rays, it is important to understand that there is danger of exposure.
All X-rays can have an impact on the body that in the long run can cause mutations in the cells, potentially leading to cancer. However, if you are careful and use the instrument according to the education that is included in the purchase and according to the regulations available there is no danger.
A common background radiation dose each year is approximately 4mSv. Using a Hand held XRF 2000 hours actively per year increases the background radiation dose by about double, which means that the user will receive approximately 8mSv per year. However, if the user would be able to perform a measurement directly on his skin, which is never recommended, the radiation dose would be approximately 55mSv per 10 sec. To compare is that those working in a radioactive zone, such as a doctor, dentist or the like, there is a requirement that when the dose exceeds 50mSv per year, you will not be allowed to work in the radioactive zone during that year.

Applications fpr Hand Held XRF

PMI
Quick, easy and non-destructive testing and identification of materials.

The instrument compares the result to a built-in library of over 400 standard alloys. The library can also be expanded with its own alloys in the user library.

Mining
Quick, easy and time-efficient screening tool for mine exploration.
XRF instruments are used around the world to measure drill cores and soil samples in search of different metals to break.

Contaminated soil
XRF as a "screening tool" for polluted soil testing provides fast and cost-effective results.

By making many measurements, you can selectively send relevant soil samples to the lab for analysis.

RoHS/WEEE
Quick and non-destructive control of heavy metals in consumer products.
In accordance with the RoHS Directive, Hg, Ca, Pb, Cr and Br are checked. The instrument gives an Pass/Fail indication.

Metal recycling
XRF is used to control the contents of metal scrap. The user-friendly "Smart Black" feature makes the work more efficient. Smart Black allows the instrument to identify metals without lighter metals directly. After just a few seconds, the instrument identifies stainless steel alloys.